Burradon and Camperdown History 1859-94
Burradon was now an established colliery village of 40 years, although its size had not increased by much (from 500 persons in 1831 to 563 in 1851). There was an 85% increase to 1043 persons between 1851 and 1861 reflecting the winning and exploitation of the Low Main coal seam. The population would continue to rise during the latter half of the 19th century as new coal seams were reached. The ownership of the colliery would also change hands on two occasions. Burradon Township was now under new ownership and the new owner was able to negotiate with the owners of Burradon Colliery the sale of land to build housing for the expanding colliery workforce. Burradon and Camperdown were even more so than before united as one mining community, leaving Burradon Farm, the former hamlet of Burradon, even more isolated than before.
Quoits team at rear of West Row c.1890
A larger community would require a larger number of amenities. The development of these amenities spread gradually northwards along Burradon Road, including a school, mechanic's institute, football ground, a new chapel and several traders and craftsmen
The total population rose from 563 in 1851 to 2157 in 1901, an increase of 283%, which compares to a rise of 99% in Northumberland and 81% in England and Wales as a whole for the same period. This is not such a useful comparison however, as a new colliery community was forming from a zero point.
The 1881 census reveals the birthplace of most residents as being the surrounding colliery villages of a greater antiquity than Burradon, with a small number of the more elderly residents having been born in more rural areas of Northumberland and Durham. Only young children are listed as having been born within the community. This indicates that the workforce was still fairly mobile, seeking employment in whichever pit offered them the most favourable conditions.
By 1871 Burradon colliery was sizable and would not have the rural feel to it as it had enjoyed in previous times. The housing created for the mineworkers was basic terraced cottages. These came in for much criticism, as well as the lack of sanitary amenities, by contemporaries. In 1861 an average of 5.52 persons were living in each house or cottage. In Burradon, for reasons that are unclear, the figure was 6.33 persons per dwelling compared to Camperdown at 4.91 p.p.d. Mineworkers families were often large. Boys from the age of ten years old were employed by the colliery, bringing a much needed wage into the household, hence the incentive to have a large family. My own great-grandparents family consisted of fourteen persons living in one of these tiny cottages. There was usually a period where a rise in population, probably because of a need for extra colliery workers, was not immediately followed by a rise in the levels of housing. This meant families having to share or take in lodgers.
Overall, some overcrowding, poor sanitation and chimney smoke probably meant that Burradon was not the most pleasant of places to live in this period, as was common with other centres of industrial growth in Britain.
1859 - The housing of Office Row begun to be constructed.
1860 - The old farmsteads, one of which was attached to the tower house, were demolished and a new farmhouse built. New housing was also provided for the farm workers (hinds) at a slightly later date.
1860 - A mining disaster occurred at Burradon Colliery which claimed the lives of seventy-six men and boys. (For a full description of the disaster and of the colliery in 1860 see the disaster section of this site.)
1861 - Land was purchased from Charles Straker by John Fryer, the viewer of the colliery, to build rows of housing and a shop (Fryers Terrace). The shop was at first ran by family members, but later became a Post Office and then a Co-operative store.
1860s - A small Primitive Methodist chapel was built adjoining the school on its southern side. This was part of the Seaton Delaval Primitive Methodist circuit. The Methodists divided areas into circuits, appointing a minister to each one, who on each Sunday would visit a different chapel within the circuit. Local men, who felt they had a certain religious calling, would become lay preachers for their respective chapel. On the 1861 census Joseph Maddison described himself as a lay preacher and in 1881 Alexander Bolton the shopkeeper also had this title.
1861 - a school was built on Burradon Road and was capable of accommodating between 450 and 500 pupils. The school was completely the property of the miners and was larger than either the Seghill or West Moor schools, a fact that the miners were justifiably proud of. Each married man had to pay 6d. per fortnight for running expenses. Young men and boys could pay 3d. per fortnight if they wished to take advantage of the night school. The school was mixed and completely unsectarian in its teaching. A news room and library was also attached to the school and had thirty members. Money from the mining disaster relief fund had been used to fund the initial construction. It is interesting to note that the miners realised the value of an education in an age where there was no state provision for education.
1861 - Census
Population 462; Dwellings 90.
- Shoemaker, John Copeman, West Indian, Roughs Cottage
- Grocer, Robert Palmer, x1851, site of Station Road
- Chemist, William Parton
- Grocer, Thomas Purvis, x1841, beside Halfway House
- Innkeeper of Halfway House, Elizabeth Carr
- Mineworkers mostly in the following housing
Lane Row, 48; Wood Houses, 8; West Row, 32; Smith's Cottages, 2; Halfway House; Hazlerigg, 3; Roughs Cottage.
See maps at foot of page for locations
Camperdown (Killingworth Township)
Population 74; Dwellings 19.
- Head of Beer House [Travellers Rest] Joiner, George Carr, x1858
- Grocer, Edward Short, x1858, between Travellers Rest and Collier Lad
- Innkeeper Collier Lad, John Brown
- Butcher and farmer of 28 acres, Samuel Pollock, Bookies shop on Front Street?
- Innkeeper Grey Horse, Elizabeth Blakey, x1858
- The rest comprise of mineworkers, labourers and 1 quarry worker
Camperdown, 4; Beer House; Camperdown 2; Grocers shop; Collier Lad; Camperdown, 2; Dixon Building, 1; Grey Horse; House [Railway Cottage].
Population 507; Approx. 61 person in farm area, Approx. 210 colliery, Approx. 190 Burradon Terraces; Dwellings 80.
- Farmer of 552 acres, William Younger, employing 11 men and 2 maidens
- Butcher, Robert Scott, Farm
- The rest comprise mostly agricultural labourers and some miners
- Colliery Blacksmith, John Yellowley, Burradon Terraces
- Horse Shoer, James Hume, Burradon Terraces
- Blacksmith, Dickinson Sankey, Burradon Terraces
- Diverse population of miners and farm workers in Burradon Terraces, which poses the question of who commissioned this housing
- Cartman and wagonway man, Peter Mather, Pit Row
- Blacksmith, Thomas Gerhans, Pit Row
- Joiner, John Hardy, Pit Row
- Brickmaker, Robson Lodge [Brick Field shown on 1858 map], Pit Row
- Coal Heap Keeper, Adam Tindle, Pit Row
- Mostly persons employed by the colliery in Pit Row, but not miners
- Resident Viewer, John Fryer, Office Row [manager's house]
- Overman, William Kirkley, Office Row
Farmstead; Burradon Terraces; Pit Row; Office Row
Total Population 1043; Total dwellings 189
1866 Jul - John Harrison had caught Thomas Charlton and Thomas Horsfield - boys employed at Burradon Colliery - breaking sheaves (a guide for the ropes pulling wagons by means of a fixed engine on a railway) on the Brunton-Shields railway line near Camperdown. The railway owner's agent did not seek compensation for this act of 25s. damage, but wanted an example set, because they have been caused a considerable nuisance and expense by this vandalism, that had been going on for a long time. Charlton - said to be the ringleader - was sent to prison for three days. His mother made an arrogant and impertinent plea to the bench, but they were told she was a violent woman who had threatened John Harrison's wife. The boy was taken away crying.
1867 Nov 12 - This short piece appeared in the "Shields Daily News": "Mr John Younger the enterprising tenant of Burradon Farm has purchased two self propelled steam driven cultivating machines. These had arrived the previous Saturday from John Fowler and Company, Steam Plough Works, Leeds. The steam was applied and the machines propelled themselves through the town to Burradon. They were quickly put to work, most satisfactorily, in a field near Burradon Pit."
1871 - Nathanial Lambert purchased Burradon Colliery by auction. He, along with his partners, lived and had financial interests in the Killingworth district. They also owned the Coxlodge colliery and from this time forward their company was known as the Burradon and Coxlodge Coal Company. They traded up until the time of nationalisation in the mid-20th century.
1871 - Census
Camperdown and Hazlerigg
Population 536; Dwellings 155
- Draper, Jane Cobbie, H. Square
- Blacksmith, William Brighton, H. Square
- Grocer, Elenora Laverick, x1858, Possibly Dixon's Buildings, H. Square
- Medical Botanist, William Porter, Shorts Cottages
- Cooper, James Holden, Shorts Cottages
- Innkeeper Halfway House, Thomas Finlay
- Innkeeper Travellers Rest, Elizabeth Carr [George Carr in 1858]
- Shopkeeper, John Forster [previously Edward Short, Carrs Buildings]
- Publican (and Coalminer) Collier Lad, Edward Urwin
- Innkeeper Grey Horse, George Means
- Grocer, John Fryer, Fryer's Terrace
- Shoemaker, John Palmer, Fryer's Terrace
- Postman, Alexander Scott, Fryer's Terrace
- Blacksmith, William Smith, Fryer's Terrace
Population 561; Dwellings 118
- Shopkeeper, Alexander Bolton, Dodds Row
- Newsagent, Willam Durey, Dodds Row
- Blacksmith, William Mather, Office Row
- Deputy Overman, Robert Hays, Office Row
- Viewer, John Maughan, Viewer's House
- Blacksmith, Dickinson Sankey, Pit Row [1861 living in Burradon Terraces]
- Blacksmith, William Young, Burradon Terraces
- Overman, Robert Hay, Burradon Terraces
- Blacksmith, John Bell, Burradon Terraces
- Farmer of 500 Acres, John Younger [William Younger in 1861] employing nine labourers and three boys
- The rest of the working population was mostly colliery workers and agricultural labourers
Total Population 1097; Total Dwellings 273
1872 - The first Co-operative store was opened in Camperdown. (See the article on the history of Co-operative retailing in the late 19th century for more information.)
1872 - Work began on the new colliery housing of North, Middle and Double Rows. The new colliery owner was responding to criticism of the existing housing, which was described by one newspaper reporter as a disgrace. Families were actually beginning to leave Burradon to find work elsewhere because of this. (See the article on social conditions for more information.)
1872 - The average daily attendance of the school was 164 pupils.
1879 - Post Office Directory
- Lambert Nathanial and Co. Colliery Owners; Burradon Colliery
- Stobbs, Edward; Farmer [A curious entry since the Younger family had farmed this land single-handedly since the 1840s. The size of the farm or dwelling is unknown.]
- Tate, Adam; Quarry owner [x1854]
- Younger, John and William; Farmers [x1851]
- Lacey, John; Halfway House
- Means, George; Collier Lad
- Means, Margaret (Mrs); Grey Horse [1871 George Means]
- Morrison, Joseph Burn; Butcher [Front St Bookies]
- Short, Edward; Shopkeeper [x1858 Carr's Buildings]
- Taylor, Stephen; Beer Retailer [Travellers Rest]
- Waldie, William, Grocer [Fryer's Terrace]
- Younger, John; Farmer Hill Head [1851 John Brown; no info on 1861-71]
1881 - Census
Population 1110; Dwellings 198
- Blacksmith [colliery], Dickinson Sankey, Double Row [1871 at Pit Row]
- Teacher, Barbara Urwin, Double Row
- Blacksmith, Silvanus Brooks, Double Row
- Cartman, William Hope, Double Row
- Coalheap Keeper, Angus Tweddle, Pit Row [previously Pit Row had housed colliery workers, but not miners, this was no longer the case, apart from Angus]
- Colliery Manager, William Green, Manager's House
- Fireman, Thomas Beadling, Office Row
- Engine Driver, Isaac Ellerington, Office Row
- Police Constable, James Hay, site of Burradon Road
- Draper, Susannah Wilson, site of Burradon Road [just north of the school
- Grocer, Alexander Bolton, x1871, site of Burradon Road [just north of the school]
- Newsagent, John Durey, x1871, site of Burradon Road [just north of the school]
- Stone Mason, Robert Hine, Burradon Terraces
- Colliery Horseshoer, Thomas Wallace, Burradon Terraces
- Blacksmith, William Southern, Burradon Terraces
- Blacksmith, Christopher Peary, Burradon Terraces
- Farmer, John Younger, x1871
Hazlerigg and Camperdown
Population 521; Dwellings 137.
- Butcher, Robert Alderson, Lane Row
- Blacksmith, John Stafford, Woods Row
- Blacksmith, William Cowans, Lane Row
- Blacksmith, John Anderson, Weetslade Terrace
- Brass Finisher, John Hartley, Weetslade Terrace
- School Mistress, Elizabeth Oaks, Weetslade Terrace
- School Master, William Davey, Weetslade Terrace [it is possible that a house was purchased in Weetslade Terrace, adjacent to the school, for the schoolmaster, by the school guardians]
- Butcher, Stephen Dixon [shop in Purvis Buildings]
- Innkeeper Halfway House, John Lacey, x1879
- Innkeeper Travellers Rest, Stephen Taylor, 1879
- Innkeeper Collier Lad, Luke Rossiter
- Grocer, Edward Short, x1858 [1881 his shop is in Dixons Buildings beside Grey Horse. Previously in Carr's Buildings beside Travellers Rest]
- Innkeeper Grey Horse, Margaret Means, x1879 [George Means 1871]
Total Population 1631; Total Dwellings 335
1887 - Bulmer Trade Directory (Burradon Entries)
"Both freestone and coal are plentiful and extensively wrought."
- Anderson, John Thomas; Blacksmith
- Black, Geo; Deputy Burradon Colliery
- Bolton, Alexander; Grocer and Draper [x1871]
- Burradon Colliery, the owners of
- Carr, Henry; Cartman
- Clough, Matthew; Deputy Colliery
- Cramlington Co-op Society Ltd
- Dunn, Thomas; Deputy
- Gallon, Thomas; Deputy
- Green, William; Under Manager (colliery)
- Hays, Robert; Deputy
- Hetherington, David; Colliery Manager; lives Gosforth
- Howey, Joseph; Police Constable [x1881]
- Humble, Thos; Deputy Burradon Colliery
- Johnson, Joseph; Deputy
- McDougal, Thomas; Schoolmaster Burradon School
- Messer, Geo; Deputy Burradon Colliery
- Patterson, Ralph S; Com Traveller
- Stubbs, Rd; Deputy
- Urwin, Edward; Deputy
- Wilson, James; Draper [1881 Susannah Wilson on Burradon Road just north of school]
- Younger, John, Farmer [x1871]
1888 - The Primitive Methodist chapel, adjoining the school, was sold to the Co-operative Society.
1890 - A Primitive Methodist chapel was constructed, larger than the previous, on Burradon Road. (pictured right)
1891 - Census
Camperdown and Hazlerigg
Population 620; Dwellings 165.
- Innkeeper Halfway House, Stephen Taylor [1881 in Travellers Rest]
- Grocer, Stephen Dixon, Purvis Buildings
- Innkeeper Travellers Rest, Jonathon Dorricot
- Innkeeper Collier Lad and Butcher [Bookies shop], Joseph Morrison
- Stone Mason, Michael Alexander, Wood's Buildings
- Boarding House Keeper, Lizzie Pringle
- Innkeeper Grey Horse, John Thew
- Stone Mason, Robson Wilson, Chapel Buildings
- Railway Dockman, Jacob Frazer, Lane Row
- Butcher, Patrick Thompson [Weetslade Terrace shop, the first mention of a butcher in this location]
- Teacher, Thomas McDougal, Weetslade Terrace [1881 William Davey held this position and residence]
- Timber Merchant, John Hardy, x1890, Weetslade Terrace
- Post Mistress, Elizabeth Hardy (wife of above), Weetslade Terrace [1894 map shows a post office at the N end of Weetslade Terrace]
- Music Teacher, James Hardy, Weetslade Terrace
- Blacksmith, Benjamin Wandless, Fryer's Terrace
- Fireman, Alfred Burn, Fryer's Terrace
- Policeman, Joseph Howe, Fryer's Terrace
Population 1156; Dwellings 194
- Hairdresser, Henry Cuthbertson, North Row [believed to have had a small wooden cabin at the site of the W.M. club]
- Blacksmith, William Cowans, Pit Row
- Safety Lamp Maker, John Hartley, Middle Row
- Joiner, Ralph Appelby, Office Row
- Joiner, John Steward, Office Row
- Blacksmith, William Wandless, Post Office Row
- Fireman, Alexander Davidson, site of Burradon Road
- Grocer, Alexander Bolton, x1871 [shop just north of the school]
- Oil Merchant, Henry Anderson, site of Burradon Road
- Blacksmith, John Anderson, site of Burradon Road [yard where hairdresser's premises are now]
- Wagonwright, William Hodgson, Burradon Terraces
- Blacksmith, Thomas Grieves
1894 Ordnance Survey Map (Click to enlarge map)
Burradon Farm E-W
- Burradon House - x1861
- Farm Buildings - x1861
- Hind's Houses - 1861 11 dwellings; 1871 6 dwellings
- Tower House - x1552
- Quarry - NW of Farm was expanded from previous OS edition
- Quarry House - x1871; Quarry Bank 1881
- Quarry Houses -
- Burradon Terraces - x1861 30 dwellings; 1871 39 dwellings; 1881 40 dwellings
Burradon Colliery NE-SW
- Colliery Buildings - expanded from previous OS edition
- Football Ground - first recording
- Pit Row - 1871 10 dwellings; 1881 9 dwellings
- Double Row - 1872; 3 rows of 7 dwellings each; see article on 19th century social conditions for a description of the 1872 housing
- Strawberry Terrace - first recording; 7 dwellings
- North Row - 1872; 27 dwellings
- Middle Row - 1872; 27 dwellings
- Mission Chapel, Church of the Good Shepherd - 1894
- Infant School - first recording
- Office Row - x1860; 1861 30 dwellings; 1871 40 dwellings
- Pit Manager's House- x1858; at end of Office Row
Burradon Road S-N
- Post Office Row - x1871; 11 dwellings; 1871 part of Chapel Row; 1881 School Row; 1891 PO Row
- Primitive Methodist Chapel - c.1860s; 1883 Co-op Store
- School - 1861
- Burradon Road Freeholds - buildings to the north of the school in small blocks; 1871 8 units known as Dodd's Row; 1881 as part of School Row which had 25 units
- Primitive Methodist Chapel - first recording c.1890
- Mechanic's Institute - first recording c.1890
- Taylor's Buildings - first recording; 4 dwellings
- Fryer's Terrace - 1861; 4 blocks of 17 houses and 1 shop
- Railway Cottage - x1830?
- Grey Horse Pub - x1828?
- Dixon's Buildings - 1861
- Norah Place, site of - x1841?; 2 or 3 dwellings.
- Collier Boy Public House, site of Camperdown Hotel - x1855.
- Carr's Buildings, site of - x1841.
- Travellers Rest Public House - x1841.
- Wood's Houses - x1841; 4 dwellings in 2 separate. blocks.
- Roughs House - First recording, but probably x1841; 25" Ordnance Survey shows an enclosure around the house with a formal garden layout.
Station Road, although not yet known by this name, N-S
- Purvis Buildings - x1828?; shop and house.
- Halfway House Pub - x1851.
- Palmer's Buildings - First recording, although possibly x1851; house and shop?
- Atkin Street, site of - x1841; grocer shop and house
- Lane Row - x1828; back-to-back housing of a one-room-and-a-garret type; 48 dwellings.
- Wood Houses - First recording, but possibly x1841; back-to-back housing as Lane Row; 8 dwellings.
- West Row - x1828; back-to-back housing as Lane Row, in fact probably identical; 32 dwellings.
- Chapel Buildings - x1828?; 2 or 3 dwellings.
- Weslyan Methodist Chapel - 1830.